1000 Series Upgrade Chip Information & Chip Data Downloads
Here is information about the chips to use and
about the data files you can download and use for preparing (programming/burning)
module or keyboard. You will need to purchase some chips to program (burn).
Information about what kind of chips to use is below. You also need a PROM/EPROM
programmer for this and some guts. See the other pages in the Upgrades section
It means opening the unit, removing chips, burning PROMS or EPROMS
and probably some soldering. Upgrading to many of the various versions of
the modules (the
instance) is a waste of time. IF you upgrade, do it all the way to one
of the Pro's. Save money and time, but with a lot more results. See Process
1 or Process 2 for details.
Burning chips too much for you? EPromPro can burn your chips.
ROM data for programming
your upgrade chips (binary data). These are zip files. Right click the link to download using IE. Other browsers work differently.
1 8 or 23 button module. Note that the 8 (Eight) button boxes have two possible OS chip sets. Details in the Download zip file. Alternate Sound Roms (512k Sound Roms) file1, file2
8 or 23 button module. Note that the 8 (Eight) button boxes have two possible OS chip sets. Details in the Download zip file. Alternate Sound Roms (512k Sound Roms) file1, file2
23 button module. Alternate Sound Roms (512k Sound Roms) file1, file2
K1000SE (and some others) Keyboard
GX GX 8 button Chip sets - See the readme file in the zip file.
Chip specifics and what to purchase:
(Compiled from various user group messages - edited)
You can purchase any of these
types of Programmable ROMs but make sure you have a programmer that
will support the chips you
UV Erasable Programmable ROMs - usually
One Time Programmable (OTP) ROMS - usually
call PROMs, some times EPROMs.
Electronically Erasable Programmable ROMS - usually called EEPROMs.
Read this before you purchase chips: http://wiki.xtronics.com/index.php/How_EPROMS_Work
Speed: The original K1000
modules used 200ns chips for the OS and Sample ROMS. You can purchase
any chip that will run at that speed or higher speeds. 70ns chips have
been used successfully. However, it is important that the two OS chips
(modules) are of the same type and speed.
Chip part numbers:
Note that every manufacturer uses a slightly different nomenclature and
usually indicates the type of chip and the speed of the chip. Search
the web using the generic numbers to find the best price and
type you want. These data sheets are only a sample of what is available.
- 27c080 1
Meg x 8 Bit - Used for the Sound Samples (modules
- 27c801 1
Meg x 8 Bit - Alternative for Sound Samples (modules and keyboards)..
27C40001 or TC574000 512K x 8
Bit - Alternatives for Sound
Data is available on the Yahoo User site here:
512Kx8bit Burn Data
- Important: Read
Note about Sound ROMS below.
- 27c512 64
K x 8 Bit - Used for the OS/Setups in the Modules.
128K x 8 Bit - Used for the OS/Setups in the
Data sheets (typical)
- AT27c080(pdf) 1
Meg x 8 Bit UV Erasable EPROM - Used for the Sound Samples.
- M27c801(pdf) 1
Meg x 8 Bit UV EPROM and OTP EPROM - Alternative for Sound Samples.
- AT27c040(pdf) 512K
x 8 Bit OTP EPROM - Alternative for Sound Samples.
Data not yet available) Important: Read
Note about Sound ROMs below.
- Am27c512(pdf) 64
K x 8 Bit CMOS EPROM - Used for the OS/Setups in the Modules.
128K x 8 Bit OTP EPROM - Used for the OS/Setups in the K1000SE/Pro
A Q & A discussion from the user
group message forum (edited by web master)
Q. [sic] Do
you have to upgrade the OS if you add sample
chips and visa versa?
Q. [sic] Which
modules does it make sense to upgrade?
Q. [sic] What kinds
of chips can be used?
A. [editied] If
you put more ROM chips in the 1000 modules you MUST update the OS (setup
and engine) so it will recognize
the presence of those chips.
Recognition of the ROM chips is contained in the OS. You can't
just pop ROMs inside and expect the OS to know they are there. Likewise
you can't just insert an upgraded OS without inserting the ROM chips.
have voices on the screen with no sounds because the OS can't find the
chips. The ROMs and the OS in inextricably linked so we went straight
Pro series modules. The group spent months and months examining this
the Kurzweil and there was no argument about what to do in the end.
There were several intermediate steps of upgrading that
emerged during the model run that were just too numerous to capture
and fool with so
the K1000 user group did not waste time locating the intermediate upgrades.
We decided if we were going to put some chips in the module we would go ahead
the way for the exact same price. Example: we did not try to clone
an 'SXa' running version 4. Why not spend $12 more for the Pro2? All
needed were a few ROM chips and the OS upgrade was required anyway.
you only have the upgrade data for a full upgrade to a Pro module available
from the user group.
You can use any speed
chips as long as the paired chips used for the OS are the same
speed. Half the
OS code is on one chip and half on the other chip
so they operate as a pair at the same speed. The split is about every
bytes and jump to the other chip to finish and back and forth. The
pairs need to
be the same speed.
For example: the OS setup chips should be the same speed. I
have used 70 nanosecond chips in place of the original 200 nanoseconds.
time of the introduction of the 1000 models the 200 nanosecond chip
was as fast as consumer
chips went. But fortunately Kurzweil has a "check reply" at
end of each action so the OS chips can't outrun the module itself.
You can use erasable chips
time programmable (OTP) slightly cheaper chips. The OTP require you
buy a new blank if
there is a burner error. I
have used EEPROMS (the correct terminology for the erasables) in the
sound ROM slots also without trouble. The problem with the sound
ROM EEPROMs is expense and quite rare in the used market. I used them
for trouble shooting only. I
would recommend using OTP chips for the sound
ROMs which is what Kurzweil used originally. If you look at the original
sound ROM's they are preprinted with the U-number which indicates they
must have subcontracted them
out. My discussions with former assembly workers indicates they didn't
have any silk screening facilities on site in MA.
A quick check of DigiKey where I buy chips indicates occasionally the
chips are becoming legacy products and are special order on some items. Sometimes
I return later to the digi-key site and they have
a few more back in stock. They have become expensive and fading fast. This
is why I stopped doing the chips because chips were expensive, the
modules are getting old and
starting to have "other problems" at the same time and
it was becoming impossible to trouble shoot them using only email.
them in minutes if I received them
by mail (had the unit), but the users usually had no tools, no expertise,
and no money.... that's
in the group....
an inexpensive alternative and now the modules are getting expensive
Chips are here:
AT27C512R-45PI-ND is the part number I used for OS
AT27C080-90PI-ND will work for the sound ROMs
Searching on the digi-key site for "28C" items
yields no matches but 27C searches brings up a long list of EPROMs and
embedded in the list further down.
David in Raleigh
Version of which chips to use for the Sound ROMS.
27C080, ST27c801 and other 1Meg X 8 bit (8 Megabits chips)
are twice as large as needed for the Sound ROMS but were selected early
on in the
upgrade project probably
miss-read the schematics. The schematics indicate the Roms are "1-8Meg".
this as 1Meg X 8 bit when
it really means "any Rom from 1
8 Megabits can work with the design. Kurzweil only used 512K x 8 bit ROMS - 4
chips. So, what does
all we can continue to use the larger chips for now. The data files provided
with these chips.
More info and the data files for the smaller chips (27C040 family) will
be added in the future. These
smaller chips should also work but only when the data files are ready.
the rest of the story on the Sound chips: (Based
on users group site discussion - edited by webmaster)
R. (Kurzweil): I don't recall
that in the late 80s that 8 meg roms existed yet, except on paper, but engineering
knew they would be available
in the future,
made plans for their future use. (To bad they never did!) All
1000 series instruments we designed to handle sound rom chips that could be
1, 2, 4 or 8 megs. And the schematics even say 1-8 meg by each
chip. But we never used anything but 4 meggers (512 x 8). The
use of different size ROMs is accomplished by address jumpers that are
configured to support
different size chips. An 8 meg chip needs address 19 (pin 1). If you check
the schematics or a board there is no connection
between A19 and Arnold Chips or the address buffers
for the Arnold Chips. So address 19 is floating, not a good thing to
have as we like thing
to be high or low mostly. So depending on who's 8 megger you use (to
burn Sound data), there could be issue. I have burned
several replacement chips using the 27C040. Mostly they are just old obsolete
So a 27C040 or 27C40001 or TC574000, any will work just fine -that is what
is in there!
PS, if one is mixing samples, like acoustic expander
with PX, don't forget that the PX DAC filters were rolled off at 10.25K
and most of the others expanders at 12.5KHz. You will hear funny things
on top with PX samples through a 12.5 filter
Webmaster research: According
to the schematics we have it looks like Kurzweil planned to use 1 Meg
x 8 chips for expansion. The arnold can address 1Meg addresses
(actually up to 8Meg) and they build the boards to address 1 Meg X
8 ROMS - perhaps in case they did lots more samples - which they evidently
did. They designed the board and arnold to use 12 bits of data but
each ROM chip (1Meg by 8) only has 8 bits output so they used three
ROMS to do the job for each set of samples.
they used 8 bits from U50 and 4 bits from U54 for one sample(s) - 8
bits from U58 and the other 8 bits from U54 for the
This explains why upgrades come in groups of 3 ROM Chips.
Here is what really happened.
They used the 512K X 8 chips - never used the 1Meg high address
line by setting JP 7 open (not connected to the arnold
and JP 5 open (pin 1 floating). This is the way my K1000 SE is
FYI, they also designed the 512K address line strappable - perhaps
they were not even sure they would need to go to 512K.. According to
they strapped the 512K
line to use the arnold address by setting JP11closed and JP9 open. So,
what about using 512K X 8bit versus 1Meg X 8bit chips?
The chips use pin 1 differently (this is important): On
the 27C080, pin 1 is
A19 (1 Meg address line). In
theory and using good CMOS engineering, it should be held high or low,
but is left floating if we use that chip and do not change the straps
(this is what we did in the past). On the 27c040, pin
1 is VPP . (VPP is the programming line - set to 12.5+ volts to program
the chip). Per the data sheet, VPP can be either 5
volts or 0 volts for normal read operations. VPP is left floating in
the production units - probably OK since it does not matter if VPP is
hi or low for normal read operations. Just FYI,
also use pin 24 differently. It
is OE- on 27c080 and is OE-/VPP on the 27c040.
It is VERY important to set the straps
For the 27C040:
* JP 7 MUST BE OPEN - Arnold 1 Meg address line not connected!
* JP 5 is an unknown. However, leaving it open obviously works as that
is the way all
the production units are
configured. Closed would connect VPP to + 5 volts - which
should also work.
The 27c040 data sheet says
volts or 5 volts. CMOS logic inputs should be hi or low.
Perhaps Kurzweil left it floating to save power.
For the 27C080:
* JP 7 MUST be OPEN - Arnold 1 Meg address line not connected!
* JP 5 SHOULD BE CLOSED! Our
upgrades have worked "most
of the time" when JP 5 is left OPEN. This leaves A19 floating
on the chip. I
do not know what address this selects (is open a 'true' or 'false'). It
may depend on the chip manufacturer. Closing JP 5 will connect A19 to +
the high copy of the the data we burn onto the chip (see more
below). One user had to 'play' with JP 5 in order to make the upgrade work.
Can you MIX 27c080 and 27C040? Yes - normally.
We have been mixing chips and did not realize that we were doing so. The factory installed
ROMS are the smaller 27c040 family chips.
Mix both type chips (Kurzweil 512K X 8 chips and added I Meg X 8 chips):
JP 7 MUST be OPEN.
JP 5 Should be CLOSED. That would select the high address upper copy of the sample
data (see below). Many
JP 5 open. I guess that in that case each chip would use either the lower or
upper copy of the sample data and we would not know.
Using 512k Sound Roms:
A user asks: If
I understand correct, 512Mb eproms (512kx8 - 27c040) could do the job? The data for
burning is 1 Mb. Can someone clear this out?
Webmaster: Great question!
I looked at the data files used to burn these chips (on this web
site). It turns out
the data from 00000 to 7FFFF Hex (first 512K bytes - 4Megbits)
is the same as
data from 80000 to FFFFF (second 512K bytes). So,
If the 1Meg X 8bit chips (27c080) are burned using these files,
the sample data is simply duplicated at the low and high addresses
pin 1 (A19) high
(or low) and still have the same sample data addressed. How we
actually ended up having
two copies in the file will remain a guru secret :) Knowing
what we know now, there is no need to burn the 1Meg X 8 chips anymore
except - we have
so may as well use them up - and until we get the data files for the
smaller chips it will take some special skill
to prepare the data for the burning of the smaller chips.
burn the 27C080 .. chips use the data on the Yaho site (as of March 2010). If there are problems,
try closing JP 5. To
burn the 27C040 (512K X 8) chips Use the alternate set of data. (512K data) which is just the first half of the larger files.
Data is available on the Yahoo User site here: 512Kx8bit Burn Data